Conquer English




2010 - ÜDS Sonbahar / İNG-Fen Bil.

A 1

1. – 18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere

uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.


1. Some temperate environments have mild winters

with abundant ----, combined with extremely dry


A) heat B) harvest C) rainfall

D) supply E) growth


2. The world’s forests provide many ---- benefits,

such as prevention of soil erosion, as well as

commercially important timber.

A) severe B) dependent C) extinct

D) desperate E) valuable


3. Although most scientists agree that our planet

will continue to warm, they disagree over how ----

the warming will proceed.

A) hideously B) suitably C) profoundly

D) rapidly E) decadently


4. Each species has the capacity to produce more

offspring than will ---- to maturity.

A) conform B) present C) recognize

D) suggest E) survive


5. Since total sleeping time is likely to decrease with

age, older people may find going to bed later or

---- earlier helpful.

A) getting up B) making out

C) breaking down D) keeping off

E) taking away


6. Because chemistry ---- all materials, it is a subject

of enormous importance.

A) makes up B) looks up C) runs over

D) deals with E) turns out


7. We ---- chemistry as the science of the

composition and structure of materials and of the

changes that materials ----.

A) had defined / underwent

B) can define / undergo

C) have defined / had undergone

D) defined / will have undergone

E) define / would have undergone


2010 - ÜDS Sonbahar / İNG-Fen Bil.

A 2

8. For more than three thousand years, from the age

of the pharaohs until the 1500s, people ---- that

the sun, the stars, and the planets ---- around the


A) have believed / had moved

B) believe / have moved

C) had believed / move

D) were believing / could have moved

E) believed / moved


9. If we ---- the materials of technology, silicon ----

the first on that list.

A) are listing / was

B) listed / had been

C) were to list / would be

D) had listed / is

E) are to list / has been


10. A battery cell that ---- popular during the

nineteenth century ---- in 1836 by the English

chemist John Frederick Daniell.

A) had become / had been constructed

B) would have become / has been constructed

C) is to become / is constructed

D) became / was constructed

E) will become / may have been constructed


11. Cells that ---- the fastest, such as those in the

blood-forming tissues in bone marrow, ---- most

seriously by nuclear radiations.

A) will divide / must have been affected

B) have divided / had been affected

C) divided / will be affected

D) had divided / have been affected

E) divide / are affected


12. The changes of energy in nuclear reactions are

enormous ---- comparison ---- those in chemical


A) above / over B) in / for

C) beyond / to D) by / with

E) of / after


13. ---- the fourteenth century, some architects

broadened their studies ---- light and began to

explore the science of optics.

A) Over / over B) During / of

C) Through / throughout D) At / in

E) Among / under


14. ---- the source of energy for nuclear power plants

and weapons can be the same, a typical nuclear

power plant does not contain enough fissionable

material in high enough concentration to produce

a nuclear explosion.

A) Although B) When C) If

D) Just as E) In case


2010 - ÜDS Sonbahar / İNG-Fen Bil.

A 3

15. Enormous underground beds of sodium and

potassium compounds formed ---- lakes and seas

became isolated by geological events.

A) as long as B) so that C) even if

D) unless E) when


16. A mixture is a material ---- can be separated by

physical means into two or more substances.

A) whereas B) whereby C) whether

D) that E) as


17. With a nuclear weapon, the objective is to release

the energy ---- rapidly ---- possible and produce a

nuclear explosion.

A) as / as B) both / and C) either / or

D) so / that E) not only / but also


18. Temperate rain forest, ---- occurs on the

northwest coast of North America, receives high

precipitation and is dominated by large conifers.

A) as well as B) more than C) such as

D) same as E) then


19. – 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada numaralanmış

yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da

ifadeyi bulunuz.

Differences in temperature caused by variations in

the (19)---- of solar energy at different locations drive

the circulation of the atmosphere. The warm surface

(20)---- the equator heats the air with which it comes

into contact, causing this air to expand and rise.

(21)---- the warm air rises, it flows away from the

equator, cools, and sinks again. (22)---- of it

recirculates back to the same areas which it originally

(23)----, but the remainder flows towards the poles,

where eventually it is chilled. Similar upward

movements of warm air and its subsequent flow

towards the poles occur at higher altitudes.


A) pattern B) severity C) influence

D) pressure E) amount


A) until B) inside C) through

D) near E) within


A) As B) Although C) Just as

D) As long as E) Even if


A) Any B) Much C) A few

D) Many E) Few


A) is to leave B) leaves C) had left

D) will leave E) left


2010 - ÜDS Sonbahar / İNG-Fen Bil.

A 4

24. – 35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun

şekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.

24. ---- as it extends outwards into space.

A) Earth’s rotation influences the direction that

winds blow

B) The atmosphere becomes less dense

C) Without the sun, life on Earth would cease

D) The nature of wind, with its turbulent gusts or

lulls, is complex and difficult to understand

E) Winds tend to blow from areas of high

atmospheric pressure to areas of low pressure


25. ---- that consists of physically distinct parts, each

with different properties.

A) By the end of the eighteenth century Lavoisier

and others had examined many compounds

B) Millions of substances have been characterized

by chemists

C) The various materials we see around us are

either substances or mixtures of substances

D) A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture

E) The word “matter” is the general term used to

refer to the materials around us


26. ---- when the atoms in substances rearrange and

combine into new substances.

A) The speeds of molecules in a gas vary over a

range of values

B) Atomic theory is central to chemistry

C) A chemical reaction occurs

D) The first metals used by man were probably

those that occurred naturally such as gold

E) A metal ore contains varying quantities of

economically worthless material


27. Although Dalton considered atoms to be the

ultimate particles of matter, ----.

A) we now know that atoms themselves have


B) metallic elements and their compounds are

obtained principally from the earth’s crust

C) silicon is a prominent and considerably useful

material of technology

D) ceramics have been extended to include

materials other than fired clay and glass

E) composites are constructed of two or more



28. ---- whether the universe will continue to expand


A) From the discussions at the conference it has

been clear

B) There is evidence for the growing view

C) Many scientists have conclusively proved

D) A recent analysis of some galaxies has shown

E) One important question is


29. If there was a “Big Bang,” that is, a huge

explosion in space some 15 billion years ago, ----.

A) there are two other ways to find out the age of

the universe

B) a great deal of evidence has been offered

C) it must have occurred simultaneously at all

points in the universe

D) the ages of stars have been estimated to be

about 10 to 15 billion years

E) over 90 per cent of the universe may be

nonluminous dark matter


2010 - ÜDS Sonbahar / İNG-Fen Bil..

A 5

30. Organisms depend on the atmosphere, ----.

A) although the sun’s energy is emitted into space

in the form of electromagnetic radiation

B) but they also maintain and, in certain instances,

modify its composition

C) since, without the sun’s energy, all water on

planet Earth would be frozen

D) just as the persistent prevailing winds blowing

over the oceans produce ocean currents

E) if the position of land masses also affects

oceanic circulation


31. Earth’s temperature shows significant variations


A) because the sun’s energy does not uniformly

reach all places

B) even though the atmosphere is an invisible layer

of gases that envelops the Earth

C) whether or not oxygen and nitrogen are the

predominant gases in the atmosphere

D) in case the atmosphere performs several

ecologically important functions

E) as deep ocean currents often travelled in

different directions and at different speeds


32. In a natural ecosystem, the essential minerals

removed from the soil by plants are returned ----.

A) whereby many human activities generate soil

problems, including mineral depletion

B) since water, wind, ice, and other agents cause

soil erosion

C) while humans often accelerate soil erosion

through poor soil management practices

D) although soil is a valuable natural resource on

which humans depend for food

E) when the plants and the animals that eat them

die and decompose


33. Many animals have a defined growth period ----.

A) that terminates when a characteristic adult size

is reached

B) even when the living material within cells is in

continuous motion

C) although organisms move as they interact with

the environment

D) whether adaptations are traits that enable an

organism to survive in a particular environment

E) since Darwin did not know about DNA or

understand the mechanisms of inheritance


34. ----, Earth’s overall temperature increases.

A) Because, during the past 1,000 years, forests in

temperate areas were largely cleared

B) Since subsistence agriculture accounts for 60

per cent of tropical deforestation

C) As the atmosphere and the oceans warm

D) Even though wildlife in tropical lands suffers due

to deforestation

E) While certain parts of the world are critically

short of protected areas such as national parks


35. ----, the change in the length of a metal rod is

generally too small to measure accurately for

ordinary changes in temperature.

A) When the first idea for a thermometer made use

of the expansion of a gas

B) Although metals expand with temperature

C) Just as the most common scale today to

measure temperature is the Celsius scale

D) As long as the Fahrenheit scale is commonly

used in the United States

E) If different materials do not expand in quite the

same way over a wide temperature range


2010 - ÜDS Sonbahar / İNG-Fen Bil..

A 6

36. – 38. sorularda, verilen İngilizce cümleye

anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz.

36. The discovery of the electron in the 1890s might

be said to mark the beginning of modern physics.

A) 1890’larda elektronun keşfinin, modern fiziğin

başlangıcını belirlediği söylenebilir.

B) Denilebilir ki elektronun 1890’larda keşfi, modern

fiziğin başlangıcını ifade eder.

C) 1890’larda elektronun keşfi ile modern fizik başlamıştır


D) Modern fiziğin, 1890’larda elektronun keşfi ile

başladığı söylenebilir.

E) Elektronun 1890’larda keşfi üzerine, modern fiziğin

başladığı söylenebilir.

37. One of the most interesting applications of laser

light is the production of three-dimensional

images called “holograms.”

A) “Hologram” denilen ve üç boyutlu olan görüntülerin

üretilmesi, lazer ışığının en ilginç kullanımlarından

bir tanesidir.

B) Lazer ışığının en ilginç uygulamalarından biri,

“hologram” adı verilen üç boyutlu görüntülerin


C) “Hologram” olarak bilinen üç boyutlu görüntüler,

lazer ışığının en ilginç bir şekilde kullanımı ile


D) Lazer ışığının en ilginç bir başka kullanımı, “hologram”

olarak tanımlanan üç boyutlu görüntü


E) En ilginç bir uygulama ile, lazer ışığı, “hologram”

denilen üç boyutlu görüntülerin üretiminde kullanılmaktadır.

38. Several problems have to be overcome to make

any nuclear reactor function.

A) Herhangi bir nükleer reaktörün çalışmasını sağlamak

için, bir sürü sorunun çözümlenmesi şarttır.

B) Bir nükleer reaktörün çalışması, pek çok sorunun

üstesinden gelinmesine bağlıdır.

C) Bir nükleer reaktörü çalıştırabilmek için, çeşitli

sorunların aşılması gerekmektedir.

D) Birçok sorunun çözümlenmesi, bir nükleer reaktörün

çalışması için gereklidir.

E) Bir nükleer reaktörün çalışması için, farklı pek

çok sorunun çözümü gerekir.

39. – 41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye

anlamca en yakın İngilizce cümleyi bulunuz.

39. 1930’ların ortalarına kadar, tüm atomların, nötronlar,

protonlar ve elektronlardan oluştuğu kabul


A) Until the mid-1930s, it was admitted that all

atoms were made up of neutrons, protons, and


B) Down to the middle of the 1930s, it was agreed

that neutrons, protons, and electrons constituted

atoms of all kinds.

C) By the middle of the 1930s, atoms of all kinds

were believed to have neutrons, protons, and

electrons in them.

D) It was about the mid-1930s that the basic

constituents of all atoms were considered to be

neutrons, protons, and electrons.

E) As far back as the mid-1930s, it was recognized

that every atom had neutrons, protons, and

electrons as its basic constituents.


2010 - ÜDS Sonbahar / İNG-Fen Bil.

A 7

40. Samanyolunun sayısız yıldızdan ibaret olduğunu

ilk gözlemleyen, Galileo olmuştur.

A) The Milky Way was first observed by Galileo who

suggested that it consisted of innumerable stars.

B) It was Galileo who first observed that the Milky

Way is comprised of countless stars.

C) Galileo was the first to observe the Milky Way,

which is made up of an infinite number of stars.

D) For Galileo, who first made observations, an

infinite number of stars constituted the Milky


E) The Milky Way, which was first observed by

Galileo, is constituted by a countless number of


41. Aşağı yukarı 200 yıl öncesine kadar, bilimsel

araştırmalarda ölçüm birimleri standart değildi

ve bu standart eksikliği, bilimsel iletişimi zorlaştırıyordu.

A) Since the units of measurement in scientific

research had not been standardized before,

there was much difficulty in scientific

communication about 200 years ago.

B) Due to the lack of standards for the units of

measurement in scientific research, scientific

communication until about 200 years ago was

very difficult.

C) It was about 200 years ago that, as there were

no standards for the units of measurement in

scientific research, it was extremely difficult to

have any scientific communication.

D) It was very hard to have any scientific

communication about 200 years ago because

there was a serious lack of standards for the

units of measurement in scientific research.

E) Until about 200 years ago, the units of

measurement in scientific research were not

standardized, and this lack of standards made

scientific communication difficult.

42. – 46. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçada

anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek

cümleyi bulunuz.

42. Energy can be transformed from one form to

another. A stone held high in the air has potential

energy; as it falls, it loses potential energy, since

its height above the ground decreases. At the

same time, it gains in kinetic energy, since its

velocity is increasing. Potential energy is being

transformed into kinetic energy. ---- At the base of

the dam, the kinetic energy of the water can be

transferred into turbine blades and further

transformed into electric energy.

A) As for potential energy, it is the energy

associated with forces that depend on the

position or configuration of a body or bodies and

the surroundings.

B) The word “work” has a variety of meanings in

everyday language, but in physics, work is given

a very specific meaning to describe what is

accomplished by the action of a force.

C) Similarly, water at the top of a dam has potential

energy, which is transformed into kinetic energy

as the water falls.

D) Besides the kinetic and potential energy of

ordinary objects, there are other forms of energy,

which include electric energy, nuclear energy,

thermal energy, and chemical energy.

E) For instance, according to the atomic theory,

thermal energy is interpreted as the kinetic

energy of rapidly moving molecules.


2010 - ÜDS Sonbahar / İNG-Fen Bil.

A 8

43. Electronics and communications have been

completely transformed by technological

advances in materials. A good example is opticalfibre

cables that have replaced long-distance

telephone cables made of copper wire. Optical

fibres are fine threads of extremely pure glass.

---- Not only are optical-fibre cables cheaper and

less bulky than copper cables carrying the same

information, but also by using different colours of

light, optical-fibre cables can carry voice, data,

and video information at the same time.

A) In fact, in view of staggering advances in

scientific research and technological application,

one can say that scientists continue to develop

new materials and discover new properties of old


B) Scientists have demonstrated that they can

transform light pulses into electronic computer

signals at the rate of 3 billion bits of information a


C) Marconi (1874-1937) invented and developed

the wireless telegraph, which could send

messages hundreds of kilometres at the speed

of light without the use of wires.

D) Because of their purity, these fibres can transmit

laser light pulses for miles compared with only a

few inches in ordinary glass.

E) Moreover, chemists could correlate molecular

structure with the characteristics of materials and

so begin to fashion materials with special


44. One characteristic property of a gas is its

compressibility, that is, its ability to be squeezed

into a smaller volume by the application of

pressure. By comparison, liquids and solids are

relatively incompressible. The compressibility of

gases was first studied quantitatively by Robert

Boyle in 1661. When he poured mercury into the

open end of a J-shaped tube, the volume of the

enclosed gas decreased. Each addition of

mercury increased the pressure on the gas,

decreasing its volume. ----

A) It is true that gases are composed of molecules

whose size is negligible compared with the

average distance between them.

B) While studying the composition of air, John

Dalton concluded in 1801 that each gas in a

mixture of unreactive gases acts as though it

were the only gas in the mixture.

C) According to Newton, the pressure of a gas was

due to the mutual repulsions of the gas particles,

that is, gas molecules.

D) The Swiss mathematician and physicist Daniel

Bernoulli suggested in 1738 that molecules of

gases move faster at higher temperatures.

E) From such experiments, he formulated the law

now known by his name and called “Boyle’s law.”


2010 - ÜDS Sonbahar / İNG-Fen Bil.

A 9

45. Sometimes organisms modify their own

microclimate. For instance, trees modify the local

climate within a forest so that in summer the

temperature is usually lower, and the relative

humidity greater, than outside the forest. The

temperature and humidity beneath the litter of the

forest floor differ still more; in the summer this

area is considerably cooler and moister than the

surrounding forest. ---- The cooler daytime

microclimate in their burrows permits them to

survive until night, when the surface cools off

and they can come out to forage or hunt.

A) As another example, many desert-dwelling

animals burrow to avoid surface climatic

conditions that would kill them in minutes.

B) An area’s climate comprises the average

weather conditions that occur there over a period

of years.

C) One of the most important climatic factors is

temperature, which comprises both average

temperature and temperature extremes.

D) Precipitation is greatest where warm air passes

over the ocean, absorbing moisture, and is then

cooled, such as when humid air is forced

upwards by mountains.

E) Actually the tropics are hotter and less variable

in climate than are temperate and polar areas.

46. Fires were a part of the natural environment long

before humans appeared, and many terrestrial

ecosystems have adapted to it. African savana,

North American grasslands, and pine forests of

the southern United States are some of the fireadapted

ecosystems. For example, fire helps

maintain grasses as the dominant vegetation in

grasslands by removing fire-sensitive hardwood

trees. The influence of fire on plants became even

more evident once humans appeared. ---- Indeed,

humans set fires for many reasons, such as for

agricultural exploitation and urban development.

A) Humans also try to prevent fires, and sometimes

this effort can have disastrous consequences.

B) Because humans deliberately and accidentally

set fires, fire became a more common


C) When fire is excluded from a fire-adapted

ecosystem, organic litter accumulates.

D) The deadly fire in Colorado during the summer of

1994 claimed the lives of 14 firefighters.

E) Controlled burns are used to suppress firesensitive

trees, thereby maintaining the natural

fire-adapted ecosystem.

47. – 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş

bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi bulunuz.

47. Edward:

- Recently I’ve been reading about the Gaia

hypothesis. Although some scientists are

reluctant to accept it, I am for it.


- Yes, I know there has been much debate

recently on this hypothesis. But what is the

hypothesis about exactly?


- ----


- I see. Surely, planet Earth is alive in the sense

that it is capable of self-maintenance.

A) As far as I am concerned, the hypothesis is not

based on verifiable scientific evidence.

B) I am afraid I can’t explain it to you in detail, but it

is something to do with the earth.

C) You should know about it better than I do

because you have written a lot about it.

D) I can see you are one of the scientists who are

strongly opposed to it.

E) Well, according to the Gaia hypothesis, Earth

can be viewed as a single living organism.

2010 - ÜDS Sonbahar / İNG-Fen Bil.

A 10

48. Tom:

- By the way, let me ask you a simple question:

how do you explain the wide variety of

organisms on Earth?


- I don’t think it is a simple question with a simple

answer. A lot can be said in answer to this



- ----


- Alright. One major explanation is that, since

Earth has many different climates, ranging from

cold, snow-covered polar climates to hot

tropical climates where it rains almost every

day, each climate has its own organisms which

have adapted to it and differ widely from the

organisms of other climates.

A) I thought I would get the right answer only from

you, but you have disappointed me.

B) Are you in fact saying that you can’t answer my

question accurately?

C) I am sure of it. However, you can at least tell me

in general terms why this is so.

D) Do you mean that scientific matters are very

complex and have no right answers?

E) I agree with you. So complicated a question as

this one cannot be answered right away.

49. Jack:

- As a scientist, can you tell me the relationship

between a hypothesis and a theory?


- Sure I can. Why do you ask? It is a very

technical question.


- ----


- Well, in that case, I can tell you that, if a

hypothesis successfully passes many tests, it

becomes known as a theory.

A) I know it is. Recently I’ve been interested in

scientific terms and issues. So I wanted to take

your view on this matter.

B) Don’t you think explanations help us organize

knowledge and predict future events?

C) I’ve always believed that, as the two aspects of

science, experiment and explanation are closely


D) After a series of experiments, a researcher can

see some relationship or regularity in the results.

E) Clearly, the design of experiments and the

explanation of results draw on the creativity of a



1. A

2. D

3. B

4. D

5. A

6. D

7. A

8. B

9. A

10. D

11. A

12. B

13. D

14. A

15. D

16. E

17. D

18. B

19. A

20. D

21. B

22. C

23. A

24. E

25. D

26. A

27. E

28. C

29. A

30. B

31. D

32. A

33. C

34. B

35. E

36. B

37. E

38. D

39. B

40. E

41. C

42. D

43. E

44. B

45. D

46. E

47. D

48. B

49. A

50. C

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